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Вдумаймося в ці слова великого сина укpаїнського наpоду. Це духовний заповіт усім. Ці pядки з відомого послання "І меpтвим, і живим ..." звеpнені до тогочасної інтелігенції. Шевченко зустpічався з "малоpосійськими" двоpянами, які засуджували кpіпосництво, миколаївську pеакцію. Значна більшість з них, одеpжавши за коpдоном освіту, знаючи іноземні мови, маючи навіть домашні театpи, все ж залишалися пеpеконаними кpіпосниками. Шевченко називає їх "землячками". Він добpе знав, що більшість укpаїнської інтелігенції відійшла фактично від своєї мови і культуpи й пpацювала в сфеpі культуpи pосійської.

Таpас Шевченко був високоосвіченою людиною, знав античну культуpу, не уявляв життя без Байpона і Шекспіpа, знав пpаці й діяльність фpанцузьких і польських істоpиків, а також істоpичних діячів слов'янських наpодів - Коллаpа і Шафаpика.

Письменник знав багатьох людей, які їздили за коpдон і пpивезли "великих слів велику силу та й більш нічого". Читать далее...

Скачать реферат ...Учітесь, читайте, і чужому научайтесь, і свого не цуpайтесь... ( Таpас Шевченко ) бесплатно
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Сэм Харрис

SEVERAL POLLS indicate that the term "atheism" has acquired such an extraordinary stigma in the United States that being an atheist is now a perfect impediment to a career in politics (in a way that being black, Muslim or homosexual is not). According to a recent Newsweek poll, only 37% of Americans would vote for an otherwise qualified atheist for president.

Atheists are often imagined to be intolerant, immoral, depressed, blind to the beauty of nature and dogmatically closed to evidence of the supernatural.

Even John Locke, one of the great patriarchs of the Enlightenment, believed that atheism was "not at all to be tolerated" because, he said, "promises, covenants and oaths, which are the bonds of human societies, can have no hold upon an atheist."

That was more than 300 years ago. But in the United States today, little seems to have changed. A remarkable 87% of the population claims "never to doubt" the existence of Читать далее...

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About Myself.

  My name is … . I’m a pupil of the 9th form of the secondary school #****. Our school gives general education. My class used to be a specialized humanitarian class. We have special programs in Russian, Russian Literature and History. I always liked social sciences and I enjoy staying here.

   I’m fifteen. I’m tall, slim, dark-haired young lady. I’m the only child in my family and I’m very upset of this. I would like to have a sister or a brother.

  But I don’t feel alone: I have many friends in our school. We spend o lot of time together, we walk, play badminton and computer and just chatter.

   I’m fond of reading and playing computer games. I like adventure books, I’ve read most of Alexander Dumas novels. Best of all I liked “The Three Musqueteers” and “The Black Tulip”. At the present time I’m reading the detective stories of Sydney Sheldon.

  I like cooking. I can make pizza and sweet small cakes. My mother says that I do Читать далее...

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My last day off

Yesterday it was Sunday, that’s why my last day off was not long ago and I remember it quite well. I always try to do my best to make my holidays really exciting, because we have only few days in a week for relaxation and rest.

Yesterday my friends and I agreed to meet at my place. First we watched a very interesting TV show “What? Where? When?”. Then we went took a videocassette and watched an outstanding movie “The Independence Day”. This is a story about strangers from the other planets that were trying to conquer the whole Earth and about the struggle against them. The movie is full of visual effects and computer graphics that takes your breath and makes you admire the modern technologies in the cinema. I wish our studios and directors made such movies. “The Independence Day” can be added to the genius pieces of modern art – that is my opinion.

Having watched the film, we decided that it was a time to go outside. The first place we we Читать далее...

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My Last Day Off.

I would like to tell you about the weekend I spend with my friend Mike. I had a really good time. Usually when I have a day off I try to keep myself busy so I can get the most of my free time.

My friend came over to my place around noon. We decided to go outside for a while; the weather was nice and dry. We went to the schoolyard to play football. There were a lot of guys playing and we joined one of the teams.  My team was winning from the beginning.  There was a lot of people standing and watching the game: parents with little kids, older people. Everybody seemed to enjoy the day. After the game we were really hungry and I invited Mike to my house to have lunch. My mom is a really good cook and she is always trying new things. We had a new dish; I think it was pelmeni with chicken. No matter what it was, it was delicious.

After we ate, my friend and I decided to check out the new “hit-parade” of music on the Europa Plus web site. We were surp Читать далее...

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At my grandfather's.

 My sister and I enjoy living in the country, that is why we usually spend our summer holidays at our grandfather's. He lives and works in the forest - he is a forester. He lives in a small house. He has a garden. Different plants grow in his garden. It is very beautiful there. There is a lake near the house. The lake is full is fish. Near the lake there are high green hills and large fields. A lot of different flowers grow in the fields. I like forget-me-not best of all. The forest is full of mushrooms and berries. Different birds and animals live on the hills and in the forest. Grandfather knows and loves them all. He knows a lot of things about animals: where they live in winter and in summer, what they eat, what they like to do, how they teach their children and play with them. He knows all about birds too. When a bird is singing he can say what bird it is. In winter when there is not much food to eat in the forest, he gives the birds somethi Читать далее...

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MEALS AND COOKING

When we cook, we boil, roast, fry or stew our food. We boil eggs, meat, chicken, fish, milk, water and vegetables. We fry eggs, fish and vegetables. We stew fish, meat, vegetables or fruit. We roast meat or chicken. We put salt, sugar, pepper, vinegar and mustard into our food to make it salted, sweet, sour or simply tasty. Our food may taste good or bad or it may be tasteless.

The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner or, in simpler houses, breakfast, dinner, tea and supper.

For breakfast English people mostly have porridge or corn-flakes with milk or cream and sugar, bacon and eggs, marmalade with buttered toast and tea or coffee. For a change they can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or fish.

English people generally have lunch about one o'clock. At lunch time in a London restaurant one usually finds a mutton chop, or steak and chips, or cold meat or fish with potatoes and salad, then a pudding or fruit to follow. Читать далее...

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The British Press

The British press consists of several kinds of newspapers.

The national papers are the ones sold all over the country, with a large circulation, giving general news.

There are two main types of national paper - the "popular" papers and the "quality" papers. The popular papers are smaller in size (they are tabloid size), with lots of pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read and often contain little real information. They give much space to opinions. They usually have "human interest" stories - stories about ordinary people and events. Examples of this type of newspapers are "The Daily Mail". "The Sun", etc.

"Quality" papers appeal to the more serious reader, who wants to read about politics and foreign affairs. These papers such as "The Daily Telegraph", "The Guardian" are bigger in size (they are called "broad-sheets"), with longer articles and a wider coverage of events. They have Читать далее...

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Thanksgiving Day

There is one day a year when all Americans stay home with their families and eat a big dinner. This is Thanksgiving Day. The pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving Day in the fall of 1621. The pilgrims sailed to America on board the "Mayflower" ship for religious freedom. They were among the first European settlers in America. There were people living in America before the pilgrims arrived. These people were the Native American Indians. The pilgrims first winter in the New World was very difficult. They had arrived too late to grow many crops. Without fresh food half of the pilgrims died. The following spring the Indians taught the pilgrims how to hunt, fish, plant and survive in America. The crops did well and in the fall of 1621 pilgrims had a great harvest. They were thankful and decided to celebrate with a Thanksgiving feast. They prepared a dinner of turkey, corn, beans and pumpkins. They invited their Indian friends to share this feast. Читать далее...

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The Earth

We live on the earth. It is very, very big. There is a lot of water on the earth. It is in rivers, lakes, seas and oceans. There are a lot of forests and fields, hills and mountains on it. The earth is full of wonders. Different animals live on the earth. Different plants grow on it. The earth is beautiful.

   There are large countries and small countries. There are warm countries and cold countries. There are some countries where there are four seasons in a year and some countries where there are only two.

   When the sun shines it is day. When the sun does not shine it is night. When it is day in one country it is night in another. You can see the moon and the stars in the sky at night. People live in different countries. They speak different languages.

   Our country is one of the largest in the world. It is so large that when it is morning in the east, it is evening in the west. People who live in our country speak more than two hund Читать далее...

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The 20-th century is by all means considered to be the most influential period of time in the development of music. In the 20-th century there were more practising musicians than in all previous centuries taken together. In the 20-th century there was no mainstream but various styles in music. It is not an easy task to describe these music styles. They reflect the world that was constantly changing. Desires and fears of the people of the 20-th century found their outlet in music. The 20-th century opened a new era in the history of mankind, and the new epoch was to be described in new musical forms. The rules were left in the past. In the 20-th century everybody could choose the music that he would enjoy. It was exciting in its adventurous freedom.

In the 1920s in New Orleans beautiful music filled the streets and cafes. The black and poor singers sang about their hard lives. Their music - jazz, ragtime and blues - soon travelled to Europe. It was the time when Читать далее...

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By Bruce Hofiman

Five bombings in four weeks. The targets: a downtown shopping mall, a military housing complex and three apartment buildings. The victims: civilians or the families of serving military personnel either asleep in their beds or out for an evening on the town. The death toll: at least 350 persons, with scores more injured and maimed. The perpetrators: unknown. The reason for the attacks: unclear. Welcome to terrorism, 21st century-style.

At a time when the United States is obsessed with more exotic threats like bioterror, cy-berteiror and agroterror, these incidents in Russia and Dagestan underscore how terrorists can still achieve their dual aim of fear and intimidation through conventional means and traditional methods: using bombs to blow things up. This has important implications for countert-errorism preparedness. As fanatical and irrational as terrorists often appear, they remain conservative operationally.

In other respects, Читать далее...

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Interesting Personality

William Blake

William Blake, English poet, painter and printer, was born on November 28, 1757.

You may have read his poems - about the lamb, the tiger, or his sad song about the poor chimney sweep.

The strange thing is that in his own time many people thought him mad. Almost a century passed after his death in 1827 before he began to be recognised as a truly great poet and artist.

His family background was obscure. We don't even know his mother's name. But he showed a talent for drawing early and at 14 he became apprentice to an engraver. When he was 21 he became an engraver on his own account and later married a girl called Catherine who learnt to draw and paint so that she could work together with him.

When he was young the French Revolution took place and he supported it. Over in England a different sort of change was taking place, which is called "The Industrial Revolution".

Blake was horrified Читать далее...

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Holidays

CHRISTMAS

The word "Christmas" is derived from the words "Christ's Mass" - the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. But although Christmas is undoubtedly a Christian celebration, it is also true to say that it is an unusual combination of pagan and Christian festivities.

A Christmas tree stands in everybody's living room at Christmas, shining its good cheer around the room. Sitting on the very top of the tree is a silver star surrounded by tiny lights. All the branches are hung with silver bells, tinsel and sparkling lights. Around the base of the tree lie the gifts and toys wrapped up in bright colourful paper.

The Christmas tree has spread its influence around the world. In fact America adopted it before it found its way to England early in Queen Victoria's reign. Now every Christmas British people are sent a huge fir tree from Norway which stands in Trafalgar Square, in the centre of London, shining down on all the peop Читать далее...

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My little sister

I've got a sister. Her name is Kate. She's three.She has got many toys: four balls - red, green, blue and yellow; three puppies - black, white and grey; two brown monkeys, a yellow giraffe, a white bear and two nice dolls. Do you think she likes to play with her toys? No, she doesn't. What she does like is – she likes to play hide-and-seek with me. Do you know the way she does it. She hides under the table and says: "Helen, where am I?" I say: "Are you on the chair?" "No, I'm not" "Are you under the chair?" "No, try again." "Oh, Kate, I try and try again, but I can't see you!" Then she runs up to me and says "Here Iam!". This is the way my little sister Kate plays hide-and-seek.Isn't she funny?

My birthday

I was born on the 22nd of March. Birthday is a very remarkable day for me. It is spring and the weather is fine. In the morning my parents come to my room to wake me singing "Happy Birthday, dear Andy". T Читать далее...

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Native Americans

Native Americans came from Asia. Over 20 000 years ago they traveled across the land between Siberia and Alaska. When English colonists came to the New World on board the "Mayflower" the native Americans met them and were very friendly and helped them a lot. In those days people lived in small earth houses and grew their own food. Some Indians ate only grass, nuts, and what fruit they could find. Other people were fishermen and lived in wooden houses. Most native Americans were very peaceful. They wanted to live happily with nature and each other. They believed in many gods and thought that the gods live in trees, stones, water and fire. They believed their gods could bring success in hunting, farming and fishing. They often had special ceremonies with dances and music before they went hunting or fishing or when they began farming. Native Americans songs and poems are a very important part of their traditions as they help them to keep their history Читать далее...

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CLIMATE AND NATURE OF GREAT BRITAIN CLIMATE

The climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid.

British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather."

The weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in Britain. When two Englishmen are introduced to each other, if they can't think of any thing else to talk about, they talk about weather. When two people meet in the street they will often say something about weather as they pass, just to s Читать далее...

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CLIMATE AND NATURE OF GREAT BRITAIN CLIMATE

The climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid.

British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather."

The weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favourite topic of conversation in Britain. When two Englishmen are introduced to each other, if they can't think of any thing else to talk about, they talk about weather. When two people meet in the street they will often say something about weather as they pass, just to s Читать далее...

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RUSSIAN COUNTRY-LIFE

Russia has always been a great agricultural country. Russian agriculture produces almost all the farm crops known in the world. The total area under cultivation is largely occupied by grain crops such as wheat, maize, barley, rye, oats, etc. The rest is occupied by potatoes and other vegetables, legumes, fruits and industrial crops. In the orchards and fruit gardens one can see plums and apples, pears and peaches and berries of all kinds. Horses, oxen, cows and sheep feed in the meadows. Cattle farming gives us meat and milk. Poultry farming supplies us with eggs and meat.

The situation in agricultural system in Russia is not simple enough now. There are no state supported collective and state farms any more as it was during the Soviet period. Now there are agricultural joint-stock companies and individual farming. Russian agriculture is undergone the process of economical changes. It is rather difficult to survive in the conditions of deep economi Читать далее...

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Write a short story about giving or receiving some good or bad news

In 1998 I participated in the contest, organized by Open Society Institute (Soros Fund). The task was to write a work, devoted to general or specific problems of Russian or European Law. There was a time limit to send the work – it should have been sent until October, 15th, 1998. This date was only a month from the date I attended my first lecture at the University. So, I was in a great hurry, but nevertheless I was able to compose the work in time. It was based on my school knowledge of Law only, and it was sent on October, 14th, 1998. That’s why I was almost sure, that I have no chances to win a prize (that was more than $1000). But, absolutely unexpectedly for me in March of 1999 I received a letter from Moscow saying I was one of the winners. That was surprisingly good news.

I do not usually believe in the supernatural and predestiny...

I was about fifteen or may be sixteen. One day I was depresse Читать далее...

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Would you work if you didn’t need the money? If not, what would you do?

Well, I’m not sure about this. Maybe yes, and maybe no. But, most likely, no. I think that the man, who earned enough money to rest all the residuary life (or the rest of life) , can allow himself to do what he really wants to do. I dislike working very much. That’s because I don’t like doing everything related with necessity to me to do something I don’t agree with. The absolute majority of jobs cannot be imagined without such a necessity. So I’d like to earn much money, buy a good and modern house not far away from the city and leave the work. What would I do? Again, I’m not absolutely sure. Possibly I’d read classical and modern literature, visit interesting exhibitions, travel in this country and abroad, work in Internet and so on. There are a lot of intriguing activities which are possible for those who have much free time and much money to spend (waste).

Imagine that you are allowed to Читать далее...

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The Commonwealth of Australia

The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-government federal state. It has six states: new south Wales, Victoria, Queens land, south Australia, western Australia and two internal territories. It is situated in the southwestern of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country has 7000000 square kilometers. Australia is the largest island in the world and the smallest continent. The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In the 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the East Coast of Australia. Nearly 20 millions people live in Australia. The capital of the country is Canberra, this city become a capital in 1927. Federal government works in Canberra in the government buildings. There are no industrial plants in the town. The population of Canberra is about 300 000 people. There are many sits in the city. They are the buildings of Australian academy of sings, the Australian national university and others. There are two b Читать далее...

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My first journey

For some people there is nothing so exciting as traveling, and I’m not an exception. And I’m happy that I have traveled a lot and I hope that my first journey wasn’t the last one.

First I bought a ticket for plane. Many people think, that nothing can be compared with traveling by air, because it is the most comfortable, and, of course, the quickest way of moving. There is none of the dust and dirt of a railway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train of another to streamer and then to another train. But booking tickets in summer is a problem. The air-fare is quite expensive and not all people can afford it.

Then I continued my way by the train. This kind of transport has also many advantages. With a train you have a comfort and speed combined. From a comfortable corner seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of a countryside. If you are hungry you can have a meal in the dinning-car and if the journey is long Читать далее...

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Language displays а culture. When you study another language, you gain the understanding of language, not only the one being learned, but also of your own. Foreign language study brings home the impact, the sensitivity, and the limitations of our native language. It teaches volumes about the culture that uses the language being studied. Developing an understanding of а simple phrase in another language can explode the imagination. No mere translation will be able tо convey the true meaning of the phrase you understand in its original expression.

In examining the Eskimo language, you'll find just one word for а motorized vehicle, meaning both an automobile and а motorcycle. You cannot distinguish between the two different machines by vocabulary, because historically the Eskimo culture was seldom confronted with motorized vehicles. On the other hand, these people, who live in what others see as an almost monochromatic world of icе, have а multitude of words for s Читать далее...

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