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Тип работы: топик

The U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. The organs of government are : Parliament, the executive and the judiciary. The legislature, Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2 chambers - the House of Lords and House of Commons - together with the Queen in her constitutional role.

The executive consists of the central Government - that is the Prime-Minister and Cabinet and other ministers who are responsible for iniating and directing the national policy, government departments, local authorities, and public corporations. The judiciary determines common I am and interpret status and is independent of both the legislature and executive.

The Government derive its authority from the elected House of Commons. A general election. For all seats in the House of Commons, must be help every 5 years. The Government is normally formed by the political part Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат


American culture is rich, complex, and unique. It emerged from the short and rapid European conquest of an enormous landmass sparsely settled by diverse indigenous peoples. Although European cultural patterns predominated, especially in language, the arts, and political institutions, peoples from Africa, Asia, and North America also contributed to American culture. All of these groups influenced popular tastes in music, dress, entertainment, and cuisine. As a result, American culture possesses an unusual mixture of patterns and forms forged from among its diverse peoples. The many melodies of American culture have not always been harmonious, but its complexity has created a society that struggles to achieve tolerance and produces a uniquely casual personal style that identifies Americans everywhere. The country is strongly committed to democracy, in which views of the majority prevail, and strives for equality in law and institutions.

Charact Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

United States (Economy)


The U.S. economy is immense. In 1998 it included more than 270 million consumers and 20 million businesses. U.S. consumers purchased more than $5.5 trillion of goods and services annually, and businesses invested over a trillion dollars more for factories and equipment. Over 80 percent of the goods and services purchased by U.S. consumers each year are made in the United States; the rest are imported from other nations. In addition to spending by private households and businesses, government agencies at all levels (federal, state, and local) spend roughly an additional $1.5 trillion a year. In total, the annual value of all goods and services produced in the United States, known as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), was $9.25 trillion in 1999.

Those levels of production, consumption, and spending make the U.S. economy by far the largest economy the world has ever known—despite the fact that some other nat Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Ukraine: Geographical Position

1.Ukraine is a rich farming, industrial and mining region in south-eastern Europe. 2.It is an independent democratic state. 3.Its population is about 52 mln people. 4.The capital of Ukraine is Kiev. 5.Ukraine have its own-armed forces, and maintain its own diplomatic relations with foreign countries.

6.Ukraine covers about 603.700-sq. km being larger than any country in Western Europe. 7.From east to west Ukraine stretches for more than 1300 km and from north to south for almost 900 km. 8.It borders with Belarus and Russia on the north and on the east. 9.In the south it is bounded by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. 10.In the west Ukraine is bounded by Moldova, Rumania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland.

11.Ukraine is in ideal geographical position for the development of its resources, lying between 440 and 520 latitude north, on the same latitude as the USA, Britain. 12.The climate is mild and warm, with a long summe Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

Ultra DMA

С лета 1997 года в компьютерных фирмах постоянно звучит вопрос "А эта системная плата (или винчестер) поддерживает Ultra DMA?" Массированная реклама сделала свое дело - не только покупатели новых, но и владельцы существующих компьютеров озабочены переходом на этот новый тип EIDE-интерфейса. Многие идут даже на то, чтобы обменять еще гарантийное оборудование с обычным EIDE на плату и винчестер с Ultra DMA. Действительно, удвоенная скорость передачи и аппаратный контроль целостности - весьма привлекательные свойства нового интерфейса. Однако при ближайшем рассмотрении красиво и сочно нарисованная картина выглядит далеко не так привлекательно и гармонично.

Для начала - небольшой технический обзор. Ultra DMA - это не сам интерфейс, а лишь один из его режимов работы, а сам он называется Ultra ATA, или ATA-33. Предыдущая модель интерфейса - ATA-2 - обеспечивает скорость передачи до 16.6 Мб/с; такая скорость может реализовываться либо в режиме PIO 4 Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

Zur Umweltsituation in der Bundesrepublik.


Dem Umweltschutz wird in der Bundesrepublik eine grosse Bedeutung beigemessen .Die Erhaltung der Umwelt ist heutzutage eine der grssten Aufgaben fr Staat,Wirtschaft und Brger.Die menschliche Gesundheit,Bden und Gewsser,Gebude und wertfolle Kunstdenkmler mssen vor weiteren Belastungen geschtzt werden.Die Brger sowie geselschaftliche Gruppen haben viel zur Verbesserung

der Umweltsituation beigetragen . Ziel ihrer Ttigkeit ist es,so bald wie moglich in ganz Deutschland kologische Lebenverhltnisse auf hohem Niveau zu schaffen.Dazu sind die Investition- en in Milliardenhhe ntig,hauptschlich in den Ber-

eichen Altlastensanierung,Abfallsentsorgung und Bau von Klranlagen.

Mllberge in den Stdten . Gef&# Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

Oligopoly is a market structure under which only a few suppliers dominate the market and the entrance of new suppliers is either constrained or impossible.1 Usually, the oligopoly market is dominated by 2-10 firms, who have a joint share of the market of 50% or more. Automobile, steel, air transport are common examples of oligopolies. Or, in a global sense, we could call oil producer countries oligopolies and OPEC – a cartel. At least some firms may influence price due to their important contribution to the total output. Every firm in the situation of oligopoly knows that if it, or its competitors either change prices or output, the revenues of all the participants on the market will change. That means that firms are interdependent. For example, if General Morors Corporation decides to raise prices on its cars, it should consider retaliative moves by Ford, Chrysler, and other competitors in order to calculate the ultimate changes in sales.

It i Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик
Eesti Kхrgem Kommertskool

Psьhholoogia kursusetцц

“Uni ja unenдod”

Хppejхud: professor J. Ennulo

Хpilane: Mark Maslov

ХB - 11

Tallinn 1998


Eesmдrgiks on avada kursusetцц unenдo olemus vхttes aluseks inimtegevuses loomingut, prohvetlust, endeid, arengut.


Professor K. Ramul tsiteerib jesuiite, kes XVIIsajandi keskel lдksid Kanadasse indiaanlasi (huroone) хigesse usku pццrama:

,,Unenдgu on oraakel, mille poole kхik need rahvad pццrduvad ja mida nad kuulavad; on prohvet, kes ennustab neile tuleviku sьndmusi, K.assandra (Troojd. kuninga Priamose tьtar, ennustaja), kes hoiatab neid хnnetuste eest, mis neid дhvardavad, harilik arst nende haigustes...

Kui pealik rддgib ьhelt poolt ja unenдgu teiselt poolt, siis vхib pealik karjuda nii palju kui tahab — esimesena tдidetakse unenдo Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Министерство образования Российской Федерации Ишимский городской общеобразовательный лицей.

“Unidentified Flying Objects”

Исполнитель:Рыков Олег 11“Ф”

Руководитель:Л. Ф. Винокурова.


Prologue. 3

The Roswell catastrophe. 3

UFOs underwater. 5

The Teheran incident. 6

Government and UFO. 6

FBI. 7

UFOs are material objects. 7

The UFO in iceberg. 9

Bob Lazar in the Dreamland. 9

Epilogue. 10

Литература: 11


Hundreds of witnesses saw UFO. Most descriptions are identical. Eyewitnesses tell about triangles soundless moving into air with powerful searchlights in every corner and winking light in the middle.

The Roswell catastrophe.

The famous Roswell catastrophe fell on the 2nd of July in 1947. It was a foul weather. The first thing which Breisel picked up from the land strokes him. Thin scrap, probably metal Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

United Kingdom: Geographical Position

The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of north-western Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire.

Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean.

Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland - Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

1. There is a large at Irkutsk State University.

2. It was set up in 1959.

3. First, the computer center had only one machine.

4. It was an electronic computing machine of the first generation the "Ural 1".

5. The staff of the computer center was 20 persons.

6. Now, the computer center is a large educational and scientific center.

7. We can find many specialists working there.

8. There are many operators, engineers, programmers and research workers there.

9. At the center there are seven departments. Internet center; Computer publishing and systems; Automatic control systems; Management of locally oriented computer systems; Mini and microcomputers laboratory; The laboratory of quantum chemistry; Software laboratory.

10. Now the new name of the computer center is new information technologies center.

11. Our computer center is equipped with modern electronics machines.

12. Th Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

There are 44 universities (not counting the Open University) in Britain. Although the Goverment is responsible for providing about 80 per cent of universities income it does not control their work or teaching nor does it have direct dealings with the universities.The grants are distributed by the Secretary of State for Education and Science.

The English universities are : Aston (Birmingham), Bath, Birmingham, Bradford Bristol, Brunel (London), Cambridge, City (London), Durham, East Anglia ,Essex, Exeter, Hull, Keele, Kent at Centerbury, Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, Oxford, Reading, Saford, Sheffield, Southhampton, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick and York. The federated University of Wales includes five university colleges, the Welsh National School of Medicine, and the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology.The Scottish universities are : Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Belfast, Glasgow, Herio Читать далее...

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Тип работы: доклад

Karaganda state medical academy

Department of foreign Languages


Theme: University of Cambridge

Made by: Siroko V.A

Cheked by: Lazarenko I.V.

Karaganda 2008





Schools, Faculties, and Departments

Central administration

The Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor

The Senate and the Regent House

The Council and the General Board


Benefactions and Fundraising

University activities





Public Examinations

Sport and other extracurricular activities


Foundation of the Colleges


Contributions to the advancement of science

Women’s education

Myths, legends and traditions


The list of the literature


U Читать далее...

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Тип работы: курсовая работа
1. Введение 1.1. Цель данного руководства

Руководство по администрированию систем AT&T UNIX System V Release 4.0 Version 1.0, разработана для оказания помощи в администрировании системы, основанной на системе 386 и выполняемой в среде UNIX System V Release 4.0. Предполагается, что вы уже знакомы с другими системами UNIX. Задачи администрирования системы показаны с помощью команд sheel и меню sysadm, представленных в пакете прикладных программ "Operations, Administration and Maintenance" (OA&M). Пакет OA&M не является частью основной системы; вам следует инсталировать его, чтобы обеспечить доступ к интерфейсу.

Данное руководство необходимо использовать после того, как программные средства будут установлены в соответствии с указаниями Руководства по инсталяции систем AT&T UNIX System V Release 4.0 Version 1.0. Инструкции по инсталяции и инициализации расширенных прикладных программ включены в документацию, сопровождающую расширенный продукт.

1.1.1. Что такое ад Читать далее...
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Тип работы: контрольная работа

Тема:UNIX та Internet: робота з віддаленим комп’ютером


1.       UNIX – операційна система.

2.       Підтримка мережі в операційній системі UNIX:

-         Протокол ТСР/ІР

-         Модель OSI

-         Протокол ІР

-         Адресування

-         User Datagram Protocol

3. Використана література.

Незабаром виповниться 30 років з моменту створення операційної системи UNIX. Яка спочатку була створена для комп’ютера PDP-7 з 4 Кб оперативної пам’яті, сьогодні UNIX працює на більшості апаратних платформах, розпочинавши зі звичайного РС і завершуючи потужними багатопроцесорними системами.

За час свого існування система UNIX витримала значні зміни, стала потужнішою, складнішою і зручнішою.

Найбільш важливі версії:

Перша редакція 1971 Перша версія UNIX написана на асемблері для PDP-11. Включала в себе компілятор і багато відомих команд і утиліт, в тому числі cat(1), chd Читать далее...

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Тип работы: доклад
Что входит в ядро Что находится в оперативной памяти Средства экономии памяти. Виртуальная память Файловая система Unix Внутренняя структура файловой системы Unix Формат индексного описателя файла

Все системные действия выполняет ядро операционной системы Unix. Ядро - обычный выполняемый файл, расположен в файле /unix или /stand/unix или /vmunix или /vmlinuz (в зависимости от конкретной реализации). Можете посмотреть размер этого файла - не маленький. При начальной загрузке системы ядро целиком загружается в оперативную память, и в дальнейшем резидентно находится в ней, выполняя все необходимые работы.

Что входит в ядро.

ДРАЙВЕРЫ УСТРОЙСТВ. И тех, которые есть, и тех, которых нет, но могут быть, а так же и такие, которые никогда вам не понадобятся.

УПРАВЛЯЮЩИЕ ПОДПРОГРАММЫ: части кода, ответственные за обеспечение работы пользовательских программ - разделение времени и прочих ресурсов системы.

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Тип работы: статья

Христофоров Юрий

Задача: необходимо загружать файлы в папку upload на сервере с уникальными именами. Т.е. при загрузке двух файлов с одинаковыми именами они должны сохраняться под уникальными именами и не перезаписывать друг друга. В ASP.NET эта задача легко решается с помощью класса Guid. Т.о. файл будет сохранен например под именем fe008e1a-f07c-4263-8dc4-67f042a8cbdb_valley.jpg.

Папка upload должна иметь NTFS права на чтение/запись/изменение для интернет-пользователя.

Файл upload_cs.aspx (написан на C#):

void Upload_Click(Object sender, EventArgs e) {

string strFileName, strRootUpload, strUniqueName;

int index;

strRootUpload = Server.MapPath("./upload");

lblMessage.Text = "";

if (fileInp.PostedFile != null) {

try {

  strFileName = fileInp.PostedFile.FileName;

  if (strFileName != "") {

    strFi Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

The seventh planet from the sun is much like its gaseous neighbors,  with a cloudy surface, rapid winds, and a small rocky core.

Uranus: personification of heaven in ancient myth

Perhaps because of a collision with a large object long ago, Uranus  orbits at an extreme tilt of 98 degrees -- sort of on its side. This causes  one pole to point toward the sun for decades, giving the planet strange  seasons.  

Uranus has numerous satellites and a faint set of rings. If all the  possible satellites being studied are confirmed, Uranus would have 16  regular and five irregular moons, making it the most populated planetary  satellite system known. Saturn is known to have 18 satellites (there may  be more, but they have not been well-documented).

Historical notes 

Uranus was thought to be a star until William Herschel discovered in  1781 that it orbited the Sun.


The eighth planet from the Sun -- well, some of the time it's Читать далее...

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Micro order

Order - suggests a straightening out so as to eliminate confusion.

Order can be easily found in physics or mathematics or any other science where basics are precisely defined, but it becomes much harder task to identify any order in a science where basics are blurry. History suggests that there were greater number scientists discovering laws of nature as oppose to laws of social behavior. It is probably coming from a notion that people tend to discover more obvious stuff in stead of theoretical. If we look at the way of living at the beginning of science we can surely say that it was more rural type of living than urban. It means simple fact that people did not interact with one another as much as we do in modern life and therefore science of nature was more obvious and had more practical use than just some theoretical study of hypothetical society that did not even exist at that time in the way we mean and study today. Modern economy has chang Читать далее...

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Ein muß stets in vollständiger Form abgefaßt werden. Es enthält im einzelnen: die Eingangsformel „Im Narnen des Volkes"; den Urteilskopf (Rubrum); den Tatbestand, also die Darstellung der erhobenen Ansprüche; Anträge in kurzer Form; die Entscheidungsgründe, auf denen die Entscheidung des Gerichts in tatsächlicher und rechtlicher Hinsicht beruht; die Unterschrift der Richter.

Messerschmidt „Die Rechtspraxis", München 1991

Sind alle zwischen den Parteien streitigen Tatsachen, die für die Entscheidung des Rechtsstreits Bedeutung haben, geklärt, so gibt das Gericht den Parteien Gelegenheit, zum Ergebnis der Beweisaufnahme Stellung zu nehmen. Darauf folgt das Urteil. Das Urteil gliedert sich in den Vorspruch (Rubrum), die Urteilsformel, den Tatbestand, die Entscheidungsgründe.

Im Vorspruch werden die Parteien mit ihren Anwälten, der Gegenstand des Rechtsstreits, das Gericht und der l Читать далее...

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The population of the USA is made up of people of different nationalities. Centuries ago they brought with them their native celebrations. Some holidays which are marked in the US originated in America. There is no provision for national holidays in the USA. The number of holiday is differ Читать далее...

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On Tuesday, hijackers crashed two passenger jets into the World Trade Center in New York City, toppling the 110-story twin towers and killing all aboard the jets and an unknown number on the ground and in the building.

In a similar attack, another passenger plane struck the Pentagon, leaving a gaping gash in the nation's military hub, killing all on board the plane and more on the ground. Within an hour, a fourth airliner went down near Pittsburgh, killing all aboard.

According to the FBI, the planes involved in the trade center crashes were American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 en route from Boston to Los Angeles carrying 81 passengers, nine flight attendants and two pilots, and United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767 also headed from Boston to Los Angeles. Officials said the plane was carrying 56 passengers, two pilots and seven flight attendants.

On Tuesday night, FBI issued several search warrants on U.S. residents based on preliminar Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Made by Valeria Grinevitch

USA Weather forecast


Across the USA - Long Range National Forecast

Regional Summaries based on New Moon charts.

Northern New England

Early spring brings in the snow, possibly in record-setting amounts only to thaw and create flooding miseries that the 'mud' season can bring up north in New England. Mid April - mid May will see more precipitation, a sunny period then a cold spell. Mid-May eases out of the cold spell only to be into windy conditions with occasional downpours. Typical spring weather but with more oomph to it this year.

Ohio Valley

Showers and downpours could lead to flooding during the March 17th New Moon period. Mid-April to Mid-May will feature thunderstorms with great intensity and wonderful weather to enhance idyllic spring awareness. Mid-May through summer brings a problem with the winds. It is also a time for drying out and the heat Читать далее...

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Howard Aiken’s contributions to the development of the computer -notably the Harvard MarkI (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the MarkII - are often excluded from the mainstream history of computers on two technicalities. The first is that MarkI and MarkII were electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the second one is that Aiken was never convinced that computer programs should be treated as data in what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the stored program.

It is not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether the machines before the stored program were or were not “computers”. This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to machines. For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored program, was officially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator And Computer. But the first stored- Читать далее...

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