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Тип работы: реферат

Міністерство освіти і науки  України

Київський національний економічний університет.


Реферат на тему:



S.W.І.F.T. - товариство міжбанківських фінансових телекомунікацій.

Виконав: студ, спец 8102

5-го курсу, 3-ї групи

Сергієнко П.М

                                                           Перевірила: Козак І.А



1. Історія створення S.W.І.F.T.;

2. Організаційна структура і принципи діяльності компанії;

3. Рада директорів;

4. Члени, субчлени, учасники;

5. S.W.І.F.T. як міжнародна система;

6. Стандартизація форм фінансових повідомлень;

7. Принципи побудови стандартизованих форм;

8. Категорії, групи і типи фінансових повідомлень;

9. Розвиток і стандартизація інших послуг.

1. Історія створення S.W.І.F.T.

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Тип работы: топик

In the fable of Sadko, a man appearing to be a poor psaltery player, has talents which are neglected by the merchants of the City of Novgorod. However Sadko, was indeed a very talented person. This was the reason that the beautiful Sea princess, Volkhova, daughter of Tsar Morskoi, the King of the Sea, was charmed by Sandko's music and songs. Eventually, the princess Volkhova fell in love with the psaltery player.

Princess Volkhova gave Sadko a chance to redeem himself when betting on the incidence of golden fish in Lake Ilmen. Sadko won his wager, which had been his life against the wealth of all merchant ships. He took the ships and asked the townspeople to take care of his wife, Lubava, and set sail.

On his journey, Sadko visited Venice, Scandinavia, Egypt, India and many other countries. But, as the ships sailed back to Russia, the wind ceased and the ships could not move. It was that then Sadko realized that because the people had not made proper sac Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Le nom de Saint-Petersburg est liй aux pages glorieuses de l’histoire et de la culture de notre pays. C’est un grand centre culturel celebre dans le monde entier par ses musees, ses monuments et ses ensembles architectureau uniques. La Venise du Nord avec ses canaux et ponts innombrables. C’est un centre d’attraction pour les artistes et les createurs du mond entier et un des plus riches centres touristiques.

Saint-Petersbourg est aussi un grand centre politique et commercial. Des temps ancien toutes les voies principales de commerce passaient а travers notre ville. Et c’est lа que les rencontres politiques trиs important ont lieu.

En fait notre ville jouait toujours une role trиs important non seulement dans la vie de notre pays mais aussi dans l’histoire europeenne.

Notre ville a йtй fondйe en 1703 par Pierre le Grand qui la considerait comme « une fenetre sur l’Europe » et « une fortress importante contre les enemies du nord » e Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great as the window to Europe. Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to build a new city on the swampy land at the mouth of the Neva River. Peter the Great was in a hurry. The work was fast and hard, and workmen dropped dead by hundreds. But the work went on.

In 1712 Saint Petersburg, a city of great beauty, with palaces, cathedrals, churches, government buildings became the capital. Under later rulers the new capital of the Russia Empire grew rapidly in wealth and beauty. Architects were brought from Western Europe to lay out the city in harmonious squares. Buildings were constructed in gray and rose-colored granite. The Hermitage and the Winter Palace, the homes of the Russian czars, were equal to any in Europe.

When the First World War began in 1914, the German-sounding name Saint Petersburg Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Surrealism (from French surrealisme - supernaturalism) - a modernistic direction in the art, appeared after the First World War in France, during 1920s. Its founders considered surrealism as a way to recognize subconscious, or supernatural. By definition of the founder, and the ideologist of this direction Andrй Breton the surrealism is " the pure mental automatism, the purpose of which is to express, either orally, or in writing, everyday ideas. Surrealism is a dictation of ideas beyond any control of mind, beyond any aesthetic or moral imaginations." (Ades 28) Artists weren’t only creating new style in art and literature, but, first of all, they were modifying the world and life. Surrealists were sure that inconceivable was beginning to incarnate the earth.

The formation of Surrealism takes its roots from Dadaism. The impudent art arisen in conditions of horror and disappointment of the artists before the major catastrophe – the European revolutio Читать далее...

Скачать реферат Salvador Dali Surrealism бесплатно
Тип работы: реферат

Установка и конфигурирование

Здесь описан мой опыт в установке и конфигурировании Samba. Я постарался описать

все процедуры для получения работающих конфигураций. Конечно это не user manual

- скорее информация к размышлению. Дополнительное описание настроек можно найти

в документации, прилагаемой к исходным текстам.

Не претендуя на абсолютную истину, с нетерпением жду замечаний и описания

ошибок, допущенных мной. Буду рад обмениваться опытом по конфигурации Samba.

Почему мне понадобилась Samba

Первый звонок

Примерно 2 года назад я установил машину под Linux для обеспечения

корпоративного выхода в Internet. Сразу встала проблема резервного копирования.

Дело в том, что файл-сервер с установленным стримером работал под управлением

Windows NT. Нужно было выбирать: искать клиент NFS для Windows NT или пытаться

на Читать далее...

Скачать реферат Samba бесплатно
Тип работы: топик

We humans have had a long association with wild animals. For all but the last few thousand years of our two million years, we have depended on them for our very existence. We were hunters in our early days, drifting along with the game herds, dipping into that seemingly inexhaustible river of life for our food and clothing. When the herds prospered, we are well; when hard times came on them, our bellies shrank. So close was our relationship with wild animals, we called them our brothers.

The Chinese and Egyptians were the first to establish collections of wild animals. About five thousand years ago, Chinese emperors maintained animal parks for their private use, usually hunting. The Pharaohs of Egypt sent expeditions into the interior of Africa to collect animals for royal menageries. Later, Roman legions sent back wild animals, along with human slaves, from their conquests. Often these two – animals and humans – ended up pitted against each ot Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

An expatriate American, he showed remarkable technical precocity as a painter. After studying with Carolus-Duran, he achieved a great reputation for his portraits, employing a style that could be seen as derived from Velázquez by way of Manet.

Moving in the circle of the Impressionists, he came to know most of them, and they reacted to his work in varying ways. Degas, as might have been expected, was brutally dismissive; Pissarro, in sending his son to see him in London, where Sargent spent the major part of his working life, described him as `an adroit performer'; but with Monet he had a close and mutually profitable relationship. In the 1880s he began to paint landscapes that were overtly Impressionist in technique and approach, despite a certain superficiality.

At this time he visited Monet at Giverny on several occasions, painting two memorable portraits of him: Claude Monet Painting at the Edge of a Wood (c.1885; Tate Gall Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

The LandLocated in the prairie region of Canada, Saskatchewan is bordered by Manitoba, Alberta, the Northwest Territories and the United States, and is the only Canadian province with entirely man-made boundaries. The province is rectangular in shape and is 651 900 km2 in area. Half of it consists of forests, one-third of cultivated lands, and one-eighth is covered with water.

The northern zone rests on a formation of Precambrian rock characteristic of the Canadian Shield. As a result, there are numerous (over 100 000) lakes, rivers, bogs and rocky outcroppings.

The southern part of the province is relatively flat, with occasional valleys created by erosion from the glacial era. This prairie zone is where most of the people live.

Camel caravans might not seem out of place in certain parts of Saskatchewan. Athabasca Provincial Park has sand dunes 30 metres high and semi-arid vegetation. Nowhere else in the world are dunes found this far n Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Much like its neighbor Jupiter, the sixth planet from the sun has a  rocky core and a gaseous surface. But is chiefly known for its  intricate series of rings that encircle it. The mile-thick rings are made of  countless orbiting ice particles, from less than an inch to several feet in  size.

Up close, it's clear that Saturn has more rings than we can count. But  though you can't see all of them from Earth, you can spot three of them  with a good telescope,.  

The two outermost rings are separated by a dark band called the  Cassini Division, named for the astronomer who discovered it in 1675. The  Cassini division isn't empty, but it has less material in it. The middle ring  is the brightest, and just inside it is a fuzzy one that can be difficult to  spot.

Saturn has 18 known satellites, made mostly of ice and rock. The  largest, Titan, orbits Saturn every 16 days and is visible through a  good-sized amateur telescope. Titan, which is larg Читать далее...

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Тип работы: статья

Светлана Рагимова

Ситуация на рынке компьютерных игр напоминает театр абсурда. Одни издатели борются с пиратами, другие поддерживают компьютерных флибустьеров. Продавцы тем временем торгуют недоделанными играми, за которые потребители платят все с меньшей охотой. При этом операторы данного бизнеса прогнозируют бурный рост рынка компьютерных игр.

Страна узнала, что такое компьютерные игры, в начале 1990-х. Тогда из КНР возили все подряд – дешевые джинсы, куртки, спортивные костюмы, термосы. С 1993 года стали завозить и пиратские компьютерные диски, которые уже тогда в Китае были в большом ходу. Именно в это время родоначальники компаний, впоследствии ставших ключевыми игроками рынка компьютерных игр в России, начали возить и продавать пиратские копии. Чуть позже появились лицензионные диски с играми, которые стоили тогда столько же, сколько в Европе. Жизнь в стране налаживалась, и находились покупатели, готовые платить за лицензию, несмотря на высокую це Читать далее...

Скачать реферат Save game бесплатно
Тип работы: реферат

Министерство Общего и Профессионального Образования Российской Федерации

Ивановский Государственный Энергетический Университет

Кафедра Электроники и Микропроцессорных систем

по курсу: «Системы контроля и визуализации» на тему:


Выполнил студент гр. 1-34M

Шмаргун А.Н.


Анисимов А. А.

Иваново 2003


Введение 4

АСУ ТП и диспетчерское управление 4

Компоненты систем контроля и управления и их назначение 6

Разработка прикладного программного обеспечения СКУ: выбор пути и инструментария 9

Технические характеристики 10

Открытость систем 11

Стоимостные характеристики 12

Эксплуатационные характеристики 12

Графический интерфейс 13

Графические средства InTouch 13

Окна в InTouch 13

Объекты и их свойства 15

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Тип работы: статья

А. В. Паршиков, С. В. Золотарев

В данной статье излагаются возможности последней версии SCADA-пакета PcVue v.8.2 компании ARC Informatique в качестве основы для создания распределенных систем управления, а также описываются заложенные в PcVue способы обеспечения адекватного уровня безопасности и надежности таких систем.

При построении локально и глобально распределенных систем управления, в том числе с возможностью Интернет/Интранет-доступа к информации в SCADA-системе, надо иметь в виду ряд существенных моментов. При такой конфигурации SCADA-система, как правило, не размещается в физически изолированной сети, и поэтому ее защита не должна строиться, исходя из этого предположения. Кроме того, для повышения эффективности управления подобными системами и оперативности принятия решений в рамках предприятия сеть SCADA-системы взаимодействует с корпоративной сетью, что влечет за собой необходимость надежной защиты информации при помощи средств контроля межсе Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат
I. Introduction

In a few years since the pioneering work of G. Binnig and H. Rohrer, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has evolved into a powerful analytical instrument. STMs operating in vacuum have yielded useful detailed information on conductor and semiconductor surface reconstructions and even molecular and atomic adsorbates.

It is clear now that STMs can operate not only in vacuum, but also with the samples covered with electrolytes. Electrolytes, though ionic conductors, are insulators as far as electron flow is concerned. In means, that electron tunneling can also occur in electrolytes.

The basic principles of scanning tunneling microscopy are simple. A very sharp tip, mounted on a piezoelectric 3-dimensional XYZ scanner, is positioned close enough to the surface of a sample for an electron tunneling current to flow between the tip and the surface. The tunneling current is the function of the gap between the tip and the surface. The whol Читать далее...

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Тип работы: сочинение


Jeder vierte Deutsche hat Schlafstцrungen. Einige Leute kцnnen schnell nicht einshlafen, andere wachen nachts hдufig auf. Morgens sind sie mьde und schlapp, denn sie schlafen schlecht oder fast nicht. Sie mцchten weiter schlafen, aber der Wecker klingelt und sie mьssen aufstehen und den Arbeitstag beginnen.

Gegen Schlafstцrungen soll man unbedingt etwas tun, denn sie kцnnen Menschen krank machen. Zuerst muss man die Ursachen lernen. Welche Ursachen kцnnen das sein? Einige Leute trinken zu viel Kaffee oder rauchen zu viel Zigaretten; andere haben zu schweres Essen am Abend. Lдrm, zu viel Licht oder ein hartes Bett auch kцnnen den Schlaf stцren. Manchmal sind aber auch Angst, Stress oder Konflikte die Ursache.

Was kann man gegen Schlafstцrungen tun? Man kann abends spazieren gehen. Man kann ein Bad am Abend nehmen, aber es muss schцn heiЯ sein. Die Luft im Zimmer muss frisch und hцchstens 18 Grad warm sein. Es ist besser keine Medikamente Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат

TOPIC 1 Say what makes a person educated. What do you think can help you to be successful in your studies? How can you aquire a good knowledge of different subjects?

Each of us has to study at school. Only school can make a person educated. School teaches us moral values, helps to understand ourselves better and make our own decisions. That’s why school plays one of the greatest roles in everyone’s life. It’s often at school that we learn to make friends and get on with other people. A student’s experience at school can influence how he or she relates to the rest of the society. The kind of education a student receives will of course influence his or her job prospects. Besides, it offers many opportunities for many kinds of activities. So schools are often responsible for producing the citizens of tomorrow. Besides school introduces us to different sorts of people, it makes us polite and well-behaved and helps us to use our free time sensibly. And, which is mos Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Education in Britain is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5-16.

School-children attend a primary school for 6 years. When students transfer to Secondary School at the age of 11, they do not take any examination, but their reports are sent on from the Primary School. Secondary School. Most children go to a comprehensive school. “Comprehensive” means all-inclusive. They admit pupils of all abilities. But there are also “grammar school” and “secondary-modern schools”.

The pupils have to pass an exam to go there. Grammar school-a school for children over the age of 11, who are specially chosen to study for examinations which may lead to higher education. Secondary-modern school-a schools for children over the age of 11, who are not expected to go on to higher study later. All types of secondary schools have the 5-year courses for pupils from 11 years up to the school leaving age.

Pupils in all state schools in England and Wales study 1 Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Svetlana Levanova, 512 AE



Suddenly the whole society realized the necessity of a school reform. We clasped our hands with great surprise and exclaimed: “Why, but we have to change it!” There's no smoke without fire. If we inspect the issue more profoundly it will be clear that the idea emerged not so accidentally.

Investigations prove that almost 90% of school students have developed health problems or are now behind the norm of their age in mental and physical maturity. The reason for that can be found not only in poor economy of the state and hostile environment, but also in the conditions at school in which students spend ten years. The load of new subjects and the growing depth of learning are the basic reasons for health problems.

Striving for a prestigious status of gymnasiums or lyceums some schools introduce new subjects, include them into their curriculum and make them compulso Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Some people think that are the happiest in their life. As for me, I cannot say whether it is right or wrong. I am still too young. I am 14 years old, and it is difficult for me to say whether my future will be more happy than my past. Moreover, school takes so much time that I hardly have time for anything else. I have classes in the first half of the day and in the evening I have to do my homework, which takes me several hours. Sometimes I have to sit up to write a composition, prepare a report, or learn a poem. Autumn and spring holidays are very short. In winter I have only two weeks free of school. Summer is the only time when I can forget about school. But it is impossible to do so. Little by little I start to understand that school plays a very important part in the life of every person, and knowledge gained at school is the key to the future success or failure.

School years may certainly be fairly happy. However, there are a lot of problems even today con Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

The 20th century began slowly, to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science, industry and moral philosophy, mankind's steps had at last been guided up the right path. The century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and electricity. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, only 41 years old in 1900, proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual but inevitable, determined by natural law.

And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. Inventions like the railroad or the telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. No one could have guessed then that, in the century just beginning, new ideas would burst upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately march of progress into a long distance, free-for-all sprint. Thrus Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

It’s difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

Let's compare our life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadn't the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our every day life. I mean refrigerators, TV sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones... They would seem miracles to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant.

On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, airplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we can't imagine our life without them.

A century is Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Scotland is one of four part of the GB. In area Scotland is more than half as big as England. The  principal cities of the country are : its capital Edinburgh and the main industrial center Glasgow.

Scottish towns look very different from English towns. Some words about Edinburgh.Edinburgh,  capital of Scotland, is one of Britain’s most attractive cities. It’s a city for people who like to walk.

You are never far from green parks, gardens and hills - even in the main shopping streets. It’s a busy  modern city, but the history is everywhere. At the top of the highest hill in Edinburgh is Edinburgh  Castle. It was the home of Scotland’s royal family until 1603 when King James the 6th of Scotland  became king of England and moved to London. The road which begins at the castle and goes  eastwards is called Royal Mile. At the other end of the Royal Mile is the Palace of Hollyroodhouse.

It was built by a Scottish king before Scotland and England were Читать далее...

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Тип работы: топик

Scotland, administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea; on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth, which partly separates it from England, and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by North Channel, which separates it from Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean. As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands, a majority of which are contained in three groups—namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. The area, including the islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sq mi). Edinburgh (population, 1991, 421,213) is the capital of Sco Читать далее...

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Тип работы: реферат


Scotland, administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea; on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth, which partly separates it from England, and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by North Channel, which separates it from Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean. As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands, a majority of which are contained in three groups—namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated off the western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; and the Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. The area, including the islands, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sq mi). Edinburgh (population, 1991, 421,213) is the capital of Scotland Читать далее...
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