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Open International University

of Human Development Ukraine

Faculty of philology and mass communication

Term Paper

On Aspective Translation

Machine Translation: Past, Present and Future

Written by Chizhik Alexey

Group PR-21

Checked by Avdeenko V.P.

Kiv 2005


1. Preface

2. Machine Translation: The First 40 Years, 1949-1989

3. Machine Translation in 1990s

4. Machine Translation Quality

5. Machine Translation and Internet

6. Machine and Human Translation

7. Concluding remarks

8. Literature used


Now it is time to analyze what has happened in the 50 year ...

Machine Translation




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During year 1999 I must pass to the peoples the novae knowledge about macro- and microcosm. Because of that in many respects will be depended on the fate civilization in the Third thousandth years. These knowledge will be passed by the brief portions in order to that specialists might arrive at a conclusion about of them truth. WATH CLOSELY FOR THESE PUBLICATIONS. Tape them one after another on your floppy disc.

I. G. Goriachko. St. Petersburg, Russia, 1999, in January, 06.

1.The major property of Nature

There is nothing in Universe except but matter forever moving in space and time.

This philosophical revelation imaged the natures unity SUBSTANCESPACETIME. It may be described by the next unknown correlation


where are the non-dimensional parameters which determinate: the form of bodys trajectory, its radius vector, its real time; p, T pressure, absolute temperature. ...

Macro-microcosm substance space time quantum

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By: Anna Magerko

French 1

Mrs. Newsome



My report is on Madagascar. Madagascar is an island of the continent of Africa. It is the fourth largest island in the world. It is in the Indian Ocean. Madagascar is formed by one large island and several small islands. The countrys total area is 226,658 square miles. It ...


Apres 40 ans de regne sur la mode, Gabrielle Chanel, plus connue sous le nom de Coco Chanel sest eteinte a Paris le 10 janvier 1970, a lage de 87 ans.

Nee a Saumur, orpheline de Bonne heure, elle avait ete elevee par deux tantes auvergnantes. En partant a la conquete de Paris, la jeune fille allait preparer une eclatante revanche a ce quelle appelait son horrible enfance.

Lorsquen 1919 Gabrielle Chanel ouvre rue Cambon une boutique de mode, elle est deja un personnage. Amie de nombreux peintres et artistes, Coco promene dans les endroits chics une silhouette originale et elegante: tailleur souple en jersey, pull-over dallure masculine, impermeable. Les femmes corsetees et baleinees la regardent et, aussitot limitent. A grands coups de ciseaux tombent volants et falbalas, la taille se libere et, avec elle, la femme.

En vacances a Cannes, Coco eprouve la revelation des peaux cuivrees par le soleil de la Cote: la vogue du bronzage commence. ...

Mademoiselle Chanel

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Snc th bgnnng f ths cntury, 2000, scnc nd ngnrng hs sn rpd ncrs n ntrst fr mtrls t th nn-scl. n fct, sttstcl dt frm Lux Rsrch, nc. shws tht wrldwd spndng n rsrch nd dvlpmnt f nn-tchnlgy s n xcss f $8 blln [1]. Th Untd Stts gvrnmnt ln s spndng vr $1 blln nnully [1]. Nn-mtrls hv ttrctd such strng ntrst bcus f th physcl, lctrnc, nd mgntc prprts rsultng frm thr quntum sz [2]. Th ptntl fr nn-tchnlgy s mmnsly dvrs wth ptntl pplctns n th flds f lctrncs, bmdcl dvcs, nrgy pplctns, mltry uss, nd wst mngmnt [2]. Nn-mtrls culd b utlzd t dsgn nn-trnsstrs, t dvlp nd dlvr mdcns fr lclly trtng dsss nd lmnts wthn th ...

Magnetic nanoparticles - fabrication, analysis and application

Malevich, Kasimir (1878-1935). Russian painter and designer, with Mondrian the most important pioneer of geometric abstract art.

Born near Kiev; trained at Kiev School of Art and Moscow Academy of Fine Arts; 1913 began creating abstract geometric patterns in style he called suprematism; taught painting in Moscow and Leningrad 1919-21; published book, The Nonobjective World (1926), on his theory; first to exhibit abstract geometric paintings; strove to produce pure, cerebral compositions; famous painting White on White (1918) carries suprematist theories to absolute conclusion; Soviet politics turned against modern art, and he died in poverty and oblivion.

He began working in an unexceptional Post-Impressionist manner, but by 1912 he was painting peasant subjects in a massive `tubular' style similar to that of Lger as well as pictures combining the fragmentation of form of Cubism with the multiplication of the image of Futurism (The Knife Grinder, ...

Malevich, Kasimir

Kasimir Malevich's art and his Suprematist manifesto are amongst the most vital artistic developments of this century. Most of his paintings are limited to geometric shapes and a narrow range of colors, but the pinnacle of his Suprematism was his White on White series. He claimed to have reached the summit of abstract art by denying objective representation.

Russian suprematism

Although Chagall and Soutine both left Russia to seek inspiration in France, the early 20th century saw an amazing renewal in Russian art. Since the far-off days of the icon painters, there had been nothing in this great country but the monotony of academic art. Now, as if unconsciously anticipating the coming revolution of 1917, one great painter after another appeared. They were not universally welcomed in their homeland, and more than one artist sought a response elsewhere, but some of the most significant painters dedicated their lives and their art to their country.

They ...

Malevich, Kasimir: Suprematist Compositions



How is a tiger's face like your thumb?

ANSWER: The stripes on the tiger's face are like your thumbprint. No two people have exactly the same thumbprint. And no two tigers have exactly the same stripe pattern.

It takes a lot of muscle to move a 400-pound body (180 kilograms). And a tiger's body is packed with muscle. So it can leap 10 yards (9 meters) over level ground, or jump 15 feet (4.5 meters) in the air. Yet it can move so gracefully that it doesn't make a sound.

Tigers are big-game hunters. They hunt water buffalo, wild pigs, deer, and other large animals. Water buffalo weigh more than a ton (900 kilograms). It would take 13 men to move such an enormous weight.

Tigers are also big eaters. In a single year, one tiger must eat about 70 deer or other large animals. That is one reason why tigers hunt alone. If they lived in big groups, they could never find enough prey to feed them all. ...


Manet Edouard 18321883

French painter. Active in Paris, he was one of the foremost French artists of the 19th century. Rebelling against the academic tradition, he developed a clear and unaffected realist style. His subjects were mainly contemporary, such as A Bar at the Folies-Bergre 1882 (Courtauld Art Gallery, London).

Born in Paris, he trained under a history painter and was inspired by Goya and Velzquez and also by Courbet. His Djeuner sur lherbe/Picnic on the Grass 1863 and Olympia 1865 (both Muse dOrsay, Paris) offended conservative tastes in their matter-of-fact treatment of the nude body. He never exhibited with the Impressionists, although he was associated with them from the 1870s.


The most significant work of 1866 is "Flautist". The picture speaks about surprising successes of the artist. It is written in three layers, with such reliance and skill, that never and nobody could them surpass ...

Manet Edouard's Flautist

They were called wolf children. These children had grown up without any contact with human society. The three most mysterious of them that I am going to show about were Kamala, Viktor and Kaspar.

12-year-old boy was captured. His movements resembled the movements of wild animals. The boy was naked. The boy was small for his age. He was deeply tanned and covered in scars and scratches from his life in the forests. He could not speak and did not react even if shouted in his ear; He refused to wear clothes, ripping them off whatever the weather. He would only eat familiar food such as potatoes or walnuts. He walked uncertainly. There was no connection between his mind and his body, and that he reflected on nothing, he had no imagination, no memory. Itard began by using a system of rewards and punishments. At first, Itard rewarded any sound Victor made. Using simple painful method, over some months Itard taught Victor the names of some household objects. Itard tried ever ...

Many strange children were found in the world

Fiddler on the roof of modernism

Marc CHAGALL: 1887-1985

He grabs a church and paints with the church, wrote a poet of the cubist era, Blaise Cendarrs. He grabs a cow and paints with the cow He paints with an oxtail (With all the dirty passion of a little Jewish town). Soutine? Stangely enough, no: Marc Shagall.

Cendrars rhapsody reminds one how different the late decades of that hugely productive painter were from his early ones. One does not think of late Chagall in terms of the dirty passion and exacerbated sexuality that struck his (mostly Gentile) friends in modern paintings golden age, Paris before 1914.

Instead one thinks of an institutionalized, not to say industrialized, sweetness: the Chagall of the blue, boneless angels, the muralist of Lincoln Center and the fresco painter of the Paris Opera, the stationed-glass artist who flooded interiors from the U. N. headquarters in New York City to Reims Cathedral ...

Marc Shagall

Franz Marc was born on February 8, 1880, in Munich, Germany. He studied at the Munich Art Academy and traveled to Paris several times where he saw the work of Gauguin, Van Gogh, and the Impressionists. With Kandinsky, he founded the almanac "Der Blaue Reiter" in 1911 and organized exhibitions with this name. He was a principal member of the First German Salon d'Automne in 1913. At the beginning of World War I, he volunteered for military service and he died near Verdun, France, on March 4, 1916.

Franz Marc was a pioneer in the birth of abstract art at the beginning of the twentieth-century The Blaue Reiter group put forth a new program for art based on exuberant color and on profoundly felt emotional and spiritual states. It was Marc's particular contribution to introduce paradisiacal imagery that had as its dramatis personae a collection of animals, most notably a group of heroic horses.

Tragically, Marc was killed in World War I at the age of th ...

Marc, Franz

32 group

Blus Alexander

Kiev 2003

MARGARET MUNNERLYN MITCHELL was born in November 8, 1900, Atlanta .She died in Aug. 16, 1949. Atlanta in full MARGARET MUNNERLYN MITCHELL American author of the enormously popular novel Gone with the Wind.Mitchell attended Washington Seminary in her native Atlanta, Georgia, before enrolling at Smith College in 1918. When her mother died the next year, she returned home. Between 1922 and 1926 she was a writer and reporter for the Atlanta Journal. After an ankle injury in 1926 she left the paper and, for the next 10 years, worked slowly on a romantic novel about the Civil War and Reconstruction as seen from a Southern point of view. The novel featured Scarlett O'Hara, a strong-willed coquette and jezebel. From her family Mitchell had absorbed the history of the South, the tragedy of the war, and the romance of the Lost Cause. She worked at her novel sporadically, composing episodes out of sequence and la ...

Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell
Marie Curie (1867-1934)

Dans laile gauche dun grand batiment, le lycee de la rue Novolipki, a Varsovie, habitait, au rez-de-chaussee, le professeur de physique Vladislow Skladovski avec sa nombreuse famille. Marie, dite encore Mania, etait la plus petite des cinq enfants de la famille, mais elle avait une memoire et une intellegence exceptionnellesEt pourtant, a la voir, avec ses joues roses de poupee, sa natte blonde et ses yeux a lexpression denfant, on aurait pu dire quelle navait rien pour selever dans la vie, au dessus de millieres dautres petites filles auxquelles elle ressemblait. Pourtant, elle etait toujours la premier, en mathematiques, en histoire, en allemand, en litterature dans toutes les matiers. Mania granditElle avait maintenant son bacalaureat et elle voulait soccuper de science. Mais elle etait pauvre et elle dut, pour, accepter une place dinstitutrice. Mais sa soif dapprendre etait grand, et quelques annees plus tard, a lage de 27 ans, elle ...

Marie Curie /./

Market and its Functioning

Market is an instrument or mechanism which is function on the definite space where customers and sellers with different goods and services are cooperating to each other. Markets are differing from each other with the specific of goods and also services but with the freedom of choice for customer.

The main point in consideration of functions of the market is coming to the exposure of regularity of forming prises for goods and services under the influence of supply and demand.

Law of demand

Demand is forming by the customer which determines the structure and amount of bought products with definite prise in the definite period of time. That means the demand is forming from many factors.

One of characteristics of demand is an interrelationship between prise and amount of demand. When the prise goes up, as a rule, the demand goes down and vice versa when the prise goes down demand goes up. This interrelation ...

Market and its Functioning

The purpose of this case study is to present a brief overview of the marketing study outcomes and personal interpretation of the key points of marketing theory covered in this course. The interpretation will be aimed at emphasizing the practical importance of marketing today.


The idea of marketing must have existed for many centuries. Yet, at the beginning it probably was not so sophisticated theory as it is today. Because of the globalization and rapid development of information technologies people, or market participants, have been urged to systematize their market experience into a well-organized theory. In our course of study the marketing has been defined by the term that sounds more specific: an approach to business focusing on satisfying customer needs and wants. To serve its key purpose, the marketing strive ...

Marketing reflections on learning outcomes

Marketing Research Project for a Russian Company

Summary......................................................................................................................... 3

Theory............................................................................................................................. 4

Identifying market segments.................................................................................. 4

Marketing research................................................................................................... 5

Introduction.............................................................................................................. 6

The corporation...................................................................................................... 7

The history of the company..................................................................................... 7

The choice of the industry .... ...

Marketing Research Project for a Russian Company

MARS [Mars] in astronomy, 4th planet from the sun, with an orbit next in order beyond that of the earth.

Physical Characteristics

Mars has a striking red appearance, and in its most favorable position for viewing, when it is opposite the sun, it is twice as bright as Sirius, the brightest star. Mars has a diameter of 4,200 mi (6,800 km), just over half the diameter of the earth, and its mass is only 11% of the earth's mass. The planet has a very thin atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide, with some nitrogen and argon. Mars has an extreme day-to-night temperature range, resulting from its thin atmosphere, from about 80F (27C) at noon to about -100F (-73C) at midnight; however, the high daytime temperatures are confined to less than 3 ft (1 m) above the surface.

Surface Features

A network of linelike markings first studied in detail (1877) by G. V. Schiaparelli was referred to by him as canali, the Italian word meaning "channels" or " ...

Mars Planet
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